Encyclopedia of wild fungi (B)

Encyclopedia of wild fungi (B)

  Ⅲ、 Tricholoma matsutake

  Tricholoma matsutake is also known as Tricholoma matsutake, Tricholoma matsutake and stinky chicken fir. The cap is hemispherical at first, and then unfolds into an umbrella. The surface is dry, grayish brown or light dark brown, and the fold is white. It is born in the forest land of Korean pine, larch and Pinus tabulaeformis in autumn. Tricholoma matsutake enjoys a high reputation in Japan and Europe and has always been regarded as a treasure among edible fungi. Known as the "king of mushrooms". In ancient Japan, Tricholoma matsutake was one of the treasures that people paid tribute to the nobility and Emperor. It is known as "herring seed in the sea, Tricholoma matsutake on land". In the Naxi nationality area of Lijiang, Yunnan Province, Tricholoma matsutake is also one of the precious dishes at the wedding banquet.

  The mushroom body is fat, the meat is fine, the flavor is rich, and has a unique flavor. It has high nutritional value and special medicinal effect. According to the analysis, fresh Tricholoma matsutake contains about 89.9% water, 17% crude protein and 8.7% pure protein. It is also rich in vitamins B1, B2, vitamin C and vitamin PP. In many documents, Tricholoma matsutake has the functions of strengthening body, benefiting stomach and intestines, relieving pain, regulating qi, reducing phlegm and expelling worms. It also has special functions in treating diabetes and cancer. Because Tricholoma matsutake contains more hormones, it has a certain effect on improving menopausal endocrine disorders, sexual dysfunction and other symptoms.

  Tricholoma matsutake is generally suitable for cooking methods such as burning, grilling, stewing, steaming, frying and frying. Its unique fresh flavor should be highlighted during cooking. Representative dishes include fried Tricholoma matsutake, dry fried Tricholoma matsutake, fried chicken slices, Tricholoma matsutake and so on.

  Application value: valuable edible fungi. It has the effects of strengthening the body, benefiting the gastrointestinal tract, relieving pain, resolving phlegm and regulating qi. The mycelium protein (tmp-b) in the aqueous extract of Tricholoma matsutake fermented mycelium can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. The inhibition rates of hot water extract of its fruiting body on mouse sarcoma S-180 and Ehrlich cancer were 91.8% and 70%, respectively. Studies have proved that the water-soluble extract of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body has a certain effect on the treatment of bronchitis, cough, phlegm, asthma and other symptoms. Its scientific name is Tricholoma matsutake, also known as big flower fungus, Tricholoma matsutake and peeling fungus. It is called "yumaoluo" in Naxi. It is a kind of mountain treasure among the fungi in Lijiang real estate. Its products are mainly exported by air in Lijiang, including fresh goods and salt. Tricholoma matsutake is rich in crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and vitamin B1, B2, vitamin PP and other elements. It not only tastes delicious, but also has the functions of stomach, Qi, phlegm, insect repellent and diabetes, which is an ideal health food for middle-aged and elderly people. In Europe and Japan, Tricholoma matsutake has been regarded as a mountain treasure since ancient times. In ancient Japan, Tricholoma matsutake was also regarded as one of the tributes offered by the people to the nobility and royal relatives and relatives.

  Tricholoma matsutake is a pure natural rare edible fungus, known as the "king of fungi". It is said that after the Hiroshima atomic bomb attack in August 1945, the only surviving plant was Tricholoma matsutake, which can not be cultivated artificially all over the world. It grows in Alpine woodland with an altitude of more than 3500 meters in the cold temperate zone. It was recorded in the Song Dynasty's "urgent materia medica of classics and history". Studies have proved that Tricholoma matsutake is rich in protein, a variety of amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, nucleic acid derivatives, peptides and other rare elements. Tricholoma matsutake is collected and eaten from early August to mid October in autumn. It has a special aroma and tastes like abalone. It is very smooth and refreshing. Matsutake is known as the "king of mushrooms" in Japan. The Japanese are used to eating Tricholoma matsutake cuisine in autumn and believe in "tonifying shape with shape". Eating it has the effects of strengthening essence, tonifying kidney, brain, intelligence and anti-cancer. Just picked and roasted with pine fire, it has the smell of pine forest from deep mountains. On a crisp autumn day, I sat with my friends on the grass beside the forest. Red leaves covered the sky, wild flowers occurred, and the feeling of vicissitudes came naturally.

  The place where Tricholoma matsutake grows needs to have three basic conditions, namely, beauty pine, Dali fragrant flower and sandy loam. It is difficult to collect. The people in the place of origin go up the mountain at night and use ice bags to cool down after harvest. Generally, it can only keep fresh for three days, so it is very precious.

  The quality of Tricholoma matsutake produced in the north and south is quite different due to different growth periods and climatic conditions. The northern Tricholoma matsutake has white color, hard texture, richer aroma, good taste, high nutritional composition and easy storage. Southern Tricholoma matsutake is slightly dark in color, moist, perishable, weak in flavor and low in price.

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